The forests of this division consist of a wealth of deciduous species topping thorny undergrowth, typical of the Maidan tracks of Karnataka. Low, stunted, branchy, boles and diffused crowns contribute to make up an incoherent or patchy forest canopy. Xerophytes and thorny species make up the growing stock. Teak is found in patches. Tamarind occurs frequently inside the forests, and along the roads. Bamboos are rare. Devanarayanadurga State forest mainly consists of the dry deciduous type of vegetation along the slopes of the hills, while tropical thorn scrub forest is predominant on the top of the hill. The Ankasandra and marshettyhally State forest are poor and open due to severe exploitation in the past. The Huliyurdurga, Bargehally and Manchaladore State forests are of the scrub type.

These forests are subjected to illicit felling, fire and grazing. Tumkur district is known for large-scale sheep rearing. Excessive grazing has a severe impact in the forests of Bukkapatna and Manchaladore forests. Casuarina and Eucalyptus are affected by Dieback disease. The Loranthus parasite is commonly found to affect sandal, Hardwickia binnata etc. Also excessive grazing has exposed the soil cover, making the area more prone to soil erosion. Afforestation work is in progress since the last 20 years and about 20,000 ha of the degraded forest area was brought under the afforestation programme.

The protection cum afforestation working circle includes about 3415.15 ha of C and D class lands. The forests of this section are mostly degraded, eroded and rocky in nature.

About 13000 ha of successful fuelwood plantations were raised in the division over the years. It includes all the Eucalyptus , Acacia, and Casuarina plantations raised by the forest department. These species are raised as monoculture crops and sometimes they are raised as a mixture. A rotation period of 10 years is fixed for Acacia auriculiformis , Eucalyptus and Casuarina species. The forests of this division also produce a variety of products such as leaves, fruits and flowers adding revenue to the economy. Over 200 ha of Tamarind plantations were raised in Bukkapatna, Tumkur and Kunigal ranges by the forest department.

Uttara Kannada

The forests of the district are grouped into five divisions- Sirsi, Honnavar, Karwar, Yellapur and Haliyal. The forest types of this division are of the evergreen, semi-evergreen, moist deciduous and scrub type. The evergreen and semi-evergreen forests are found along the Western Ghats. A number of softwood species grow in these forests. The moist deciduous forests are rich in timber trees. These forests are also important for firewood. The scrub and thorny forests are subject to heavy pressure from firewood extraction and grazing. The increasing population has a direct bearing on the increased demand for agriculture lands and this way it has had an adverse effect on the forests. The description of the forests of the district is given division- wise below:


The forests of this division fall in Sirsi and Siddapur taluks with a small portioin in Mundgod taluk. Most of the home gardens of the North Karnataka are found in this tract. Southern moist type of forests is found in the eastern parts of Sirsi and Siddapur ranges and in the low lands of the northwest of Sirsi range. The terrain is mildly undulating. Some of the important species of this region are Xylia xylocarpa , Terminalia tomentosa , Dalbergia latifolia etc. Southern tropical semi-evergreen forests are seen in the western parts of Sirsi and Siddapur ranges. The forests also occupy steep slopes of Bedti, Sonda, Benne nala, Billi Nadi, Aghanashini, Mugti nala and Sharavathi. Terminalia paniculata and Langerstroemia lanceolata are commonly found in this tract. Canebrakes are found throughout the evergreen and semi-evergreen climaxes and also in the moist deciduous forests. The area under this forest cover is subjected to injuries by human beings (felling, encroachment), cattle grazing, natural agents like weeds, climbers insects etc. Number of trees/ha and the basal area of the different types of forests in Sirsi division are given in table 28 (NRSA/KFD, 1996).

Table 28: Trees/ha and Basal area of Different Forests in Sirsi Division

Forest Type

No inventory points


Basal area (m 2 /ha)





Semi evergreen




Moist deciduous




Dry deciduous




(KFD, 2001)

According to the inventory analysis, the average tree density is 350 trees/ha with a maximum of 960 and a minimum of 10 trees /ha. To improve the forest stock, various afforestation programmes have come up in this division. Acacia auriculiformis plantations have been raised here since the 80's.These plantations are thinned at the 9 th year to meet the fuel wood requirements.


The forests of this division lie in the taluks of Bhatkal, Honnavar, Kumta and parts of Ankola. Forest (classified and unclassified) is the major land cover of the area, covering 68%. Compared to classified forest area, the area covered by the unclassified forest is negligible. Evergreen, semi evergreen forests cover the eastern, north eastern and southern portion of the division. Forest plantations and scrubs cover the western part of the division. Moist deciduous forests with pockets of dry deciduous forests cover the northwestern part of the division. The type of forests from Bhatkal Taluk ranges from laterite thorn to laterite evergreen. Forests occupying the coastal strip are all denuded and in many places have been afforested with Acacia auriculiformis . In the Kumta taluk the forest type changes from laterite scrub to moist deciduous and evergreen as one advances from west to east. Pockets of bamboo-dominated forests occur in the Aghanashini valley.

The major species encountered in this division are Tectona grandis , Terminalia alata , Terminalia paniculata , Vitex altissima , Schleichera oleosa , Holigarna caustica , Mangifera indica , Pterospermum heyneanum , Syzygium montanum , Diospyros microphylla , Zingiber casumunar and Acacia auriculiformis . Shrubs are frequent in these forests. Eugenia macrosepala, Dichapetalum geloniodes, Ixora nigricans, memecylon terminale and Rauvolfia serpentina are some of the shrub species of this region. The statistics for different forests cover are given in table 29.

Table 29: Percentage of Different Forests in Honnavar Division


Area (sq. km)





Moist deciduous



Dry deciduous



Bamboo dominated forests



Scrub forest



Mangrove forest



Teak plantation



Eucalyptus plantation



Casuarina Plantation



Acacia Plantation



Mixed Plantation



Cashew Plantation



Forest Blank



(KFD, 2001)


Most of the forests of this division lie in the taluks of Supa and Karwar, while a portion lies in Ankola taluk. Evergreen forests are noticeable in the interior high forest blocks of the region. They also appear in patches in the lower reaches of the valley. Canebrakes are found in these forests. Semi-evergreen forests are found throughout the divisions barring a few places. These forests are rich in Terminalia paniculata , Lagerstroemia lanceolata , Terminalia bellarica and Dillenia pentagyna . Laterite thorn forests are found in the minor forest areas of the division in the coastal belt. Acacia sundra, Buchanania latifolia, Strychnos nux vomica, Careya arborea etc are some of its constituent species. Laterite semi-evergreen forests are found in small patches within the semi-evergreen forest type. The laterite thorn forests are subjected to heavy lopping and have almost lost their regenerative capacity. Excising the privileges beyond sustainable limits by the villagers has resulted in their serious degradation. The division has pure plantations of Tectona grandis, Acacia auriculiformis, Anacardium occidentale, and Casuarina equisetifolia. Acacia is raised in the coastal regions. Mixed plantations are also raised.


The forests of Haliyal division spread over Haliyal taluk. Evergreen, semi-evergreen, moist and dry deciduous vegetation exists in this area. Observations based on a study (NRSA, KFD-1996) of 103 randomly selected plots reveals an average tree density of 376 trees per hectare of the forest division, with a maximum of 1240 and a minimum of 10 trees per hectare. The average basal area estimated was 20.79 m 2 /ha.